Isochrone Map: Austro-Hungarian Empire Railway Network 1912 in English

In the earlier English version of this map I got some feedback concerning the English / German / Hungarian city names used. I tried to use English names in use in 1912, but I was inconsistent when there were no obvious translations. This time I went through them again and gave preference to anglicized German names, then to names with Latin origin above Uralic or Slavic. This map is supposed to show 1912, I do realize that Agram, Fiume, Lemberg or Pressburg are no longer common names. I added some labels of smaller cities, mainly to fill in blank areas and help with orientation.

Apart from English, with the intent of creating a version for each language of that Empire, I compiled a list of contemporary names in German, Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, Polish, Slovenian, Croatian, Latin, Italian, Romanian and Turkish. My apologies to any Ukrainians, Romani, Armenian, Albanian, Greek and Yiddish readers for not completing a list for you (message me if you have a list in that language). Grác, Segedín, Černovic and Đer are the only differences from Croatian to Bosnian, Montenegrin or Serbian so forgive me again if I don’t complete that language break up also.

Why also in Latin? Many names have Latin versions from the Roman period and have older Celtic, Greek or Illyrian origins.

Austro-Hungarian Empire Railway Network 1912 2.2 smallmid-size

Isochrone Map: Austro-Hungarian Empire Railway Network 1912 (version 2.2 English)


Here some details to different cities:

Pressburg | Pressburg | Pozsony | Prešpurk | Prešporok/Bratislava | Preszburg | Požun | Požun | Posonium | Presburgo/Posonio | Pojon | Pozsony
Bratislava has an incredible long settlement history dating back to Homo Heidelbergensis and the Homo Neanderthalensis. There were Celtic towns on both sides of the Danube (south one by Hainburg) but with no certified town name (Boiorum?). The Roman military camp Gerulata was located on the south bank of the Danube where a part of Bratislava is today but Gerulata was not that important compared to Aquincum (Budapest) or Vindobona (Vienna)  or its direct neighbour, the largest city north of the Alps, Carnuntum! Here a link to the civilian city Carnatum. Gerulata suffered the same fate as Carnatum, just swifter and was abandoned. Huns, Avars, Germans, Slavs and Magyars make very volatile and uncertain settlement medieval settlement history and with many different names. Here a few of those names: Pisonium, Brezalauspurc, Istropolis (Greek for Danube city), Brezisburg, Prespurch, Posony, ect… but at least it is not called Wilsonov. Bratislava is a name interpreted out of medieval sources and it gained traction by Slovak nationalist and was chosen as an official name in 1919.

Vienna | Wien | Bécs | Vídeň | Viedeň | Wiedeń | Dunaj | Beč | Vindobona | Vienna | Viena/Beciu | Viyana/Beç
If you look through the different languages you will notice that Vienna is sometimes named Beč, Beciu or Bech which is not derived from Roman name Vindobona, which in turn comes from the Celtic Vedunia. The Beč name refers the Avarian word Вена, for a fortress located there. Areas not ruled by the Avars did not adopt this name. Slovenians decided to name it Dunaj after the Danube River. The Italian Vienna is used English.

Grand Varadin | Großwardein | Nagyvárad | Veľký Varadín | Veľký Varadín | Wielki Waradyn | Veliki Varadin | Veliki Varadin | Magno-Varadinum | Gran Varadino | Oradea-Mare | Varat
Vár, means fortress in Hungarian. This city was first mentioned in 1113 as the Varadinum in Latin. At some point the prefix Gran / Groß / Nagy / Veľký was added except by Turkish, maybe they did not want to title it “Grand” even though with 850 defenders it held out against 45000 Turks for 46 days. How to anglify this name? Well, the Italian Gran is close the English Grand, drop the “o” and you have Grand Varadin. Instead of that you could use Grosswardein.

Funfkirchen | Fünfkirchen | Pécs | Pětikostelí | Päťkostolie | Pecz | Pečuh | Pečuh | Quinque Ecclesiae/Sopianæ | Cinquechiese | Beci | Peçuy
The name Pécs may derive from the Slavic word for five among other possibilities. That seems logical since the medieval city was mentioned 871 in Latin as Quinque Basilicae (“five cathedrals”). Italian Cinquechiese, Czech Pětikostelí, Slavak Päťkostolie and German Fünfkirchen each translated that name. The Romans named the city in Sopianæ after the Celtic Sop (“marsh”) but that name became disused. What English name should be used? I opted to anglify the German name to Funfkirchen, my reasoning was that the German city Gelsenkirchen retains its German name in English and anglifying a Latin or Slavic name seemed wrong.


Here the list of contemporary names:

English Official name German Hungarian
Vienna Wien Wien Bécs
Budapest Budapest Budapest Budapest
Triest Trieste Triest Trieszt
Prague Praha Prag Prága
Lemberg Lviv Lemberg Ilyvó
Cracow Kraków Krakau Krakkó
Graz Graz Graz Grác
Brunn Brno Brünn Brünn
Szeged Szeged Szegedin Szeged
Subotica Szabadka Mariatheresiopel Szabadka
Debrecen Debrecen Debrezin Debrecen
Czernowitz Чернівці Czernowitz Csernyivci
Pilsen Plzeň Pilsen Plzeň
Agram Zagreb Agram Zágráb
Pressburg Bratislava Pressburg Pozsony
Mischkolz Miskolc Mischkolz Miskolc
Temeswar Temesvár Temeswar Temesvár
Linz Linz Linz Linz
Grand Varadin Oradea Großwardein Nagyvárad
Clausemburg Cluj-Napoca Klausenburg Kolozsvár
Funfkirchen Pécs Fünfkirchen Pécs
Innsbruck Innsbruck Innsbruck Innzbruk
Sarajevo Sarajevo Sarajevo Szarajevó
Laibach Ljubljana Laibach Ljubljana
Raab Győr Raab Győr
Budweis České Budějovice Budweis Budějovice
Fiume Rijeka Fiume Fiume
Czech Slovak Polish Slovenian Croatian
Vídeň Viedeň Wiedeń Dunaj Beč
Budapešť Budapešť Budapeszt Budimpešta Budimpešta
Terst Terst Triest Trst Trst
Praha Praha Praga Praga Prag
Lvov Lvov Lwów Lavov Lavov
Krakov Krakov Kraków Krakov Krakov
Hradec Hradec Grodziec Gradec Gradac
Brno Brno Berno Brno Brno
Segedín Segedín Szegedyn Szeged Siget
Subotica Subotica Subotica Subotica Subotica
Debrecín Debrecín Debreczyn Debrecen Debrecin
Černovice Černovice Czerniowce Černovci Černovci
Plzeň Plzeň Pilzno Plzeň Plzeň
Záhřeb Záhreb Zagrzeb Zagreb Zagreb
Prešpurk Prešporok / Bratislava Preszburg Požun Požun
Miškovec Miškovec Miszkolc Miškovec Miškolc
Temešvár Temešvár Timiszoara Temišvar Temišvar
Linec Linec Linec Linz Linz
Veľký Varadín Veľký Varadín Wielki Waradyn Veliki Varadin Veliki Varadin
Kluž Kluž Kluż Kluž-Napoka Kluž-Napoka
Pětikostelí Päťkostolie Pecz Pečuh Pečuh
Inšpruk Inšpruk Innsbruck Inzbruk Inzbruk
Sarajevo Sarajevo Sarajewo Sarajevo Sarajevo
Lublaň Ľubľana Lublana Ljubljana Ljubljana
Ráb Ráb Jawaryn Gjur Jura
Budějovice Budějovice Budziejowice Budějovice Budějovice
Rijeka Rijeka Rijeka Reka Rijeka
Latin Italian Romanian Turkish
Vindobona Vienna Viena / Beciu Viyana or Beç
Aquincum / Budapestinum Budapest Budapesta Budapeşte
Tergeste / Tergestum Trieste Trieste Triyeste
Praga Praga Praga Prag
Leopolis Leopoli Liov İlbav
Cracovia Cracovia Cracovia Krakov
Graecium Graz Graz Graz
Bruna Bruna Brno Brno
Partiscum Seghedino Seghedin Segedin
Maria-Theresiopolis Maria Teresiopoli Subotica Subotica
Debrecinum Debrecen Debreţin Debrecen
Czernovicum Černivci Cernăuţi Çernivtsi
Pilsenum Pilsen Pilsen Plzeň
Zagrabia Zagabria Zagreb Zagrep
Posonium Presburgo Posonio Pojon Pozsony
Miscolcium Miskolc Mişcolţ Miskolc
Timisvaria / Zambara? Timișoara Timişoara Temeşvar
Lentia Linz Linz Linç
Magno-Varadinum Gran Varadino Oradea-Mare Varat
Claudiopolis / Napoca Clausemburgo Cluj-Napoca Kaloşvar
Quinque Ecclesiae / Sopianæ Cinquechiese Beci Peçuy
Oeni Pontum Enoponte Innsbruck İnnsbruck
Seraium Saraievo Sarajevo Saraybosna
Aemona / Labacum Lubiana Liubliana Lubliyana
Iaurinum / Arrabona Giavarino Győr Yanıkkale / Győr
Budovicium Budějovice Budějovice Budějovice
Tarsaticum / Vitopolis / Flumen Fiume Fiume Rijeka
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7 comments

  1. I can provide you an answer regarding traveling to Dalmatia. At the time, and until recently the most common way to travel was taking a train to Triest od Rijeka / Fiume and then to take a ship for Dalmatia or the islands.

    Liked by 1 person

  2. It’s funny how slow the world used to be back then.. I live in Brno (Brunn), and it’s definitely no more than 2 hours away from Vienna now, if you go by train, maybe even less. (I usually take a bus there (1h50m), so don’t know for sure.)

    Liked by 1 person

  3. […] I’d love to make a proper isochronic map but I don’t have the programming skills yet. An isochronic map is one where equal travel times are represented by joined lines. It’s a much better way of visualising this kind of data. There are some great examples here: http://www.intelligentlifemagazine.com/places/cartophilia/time-travel and here: http://emptypipes.org/2015/05/20/europe-isochrone-map/and here: https://alternativetransport.wordpress.com/2015/05/18/isochrone-map-austro-hungarian-empire-railway-… […]

    Like

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